A Beginner’s Guide to Capital Gains Tax on Real Estate Investments in Australia

February 22nd, 2024

If you have started your journey in the Australian real estate investment space or plan to dive in soon, capital gains tax (CGT) is an important concept for you to wrap your head around. At Empire 8 Property, we often get questions from new investors about how CGT works on property sales and how they can effectively manage their tax obligations. This beginner’s guide breaks down the key things you need to know.

All About Capital Gains Tax

Let’s start with the basics – what exactly is capital gains tax? Simply put, it is a tax you may owe when you generate a capital gain from selling a property that is not your main residence. So if you sell an investment property for more than you paid for it, the profit part is treated as a capital gain and is usually taxed by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO).

Capital gains tax applies to other high-value assets too like shares or businesses, but property is one of the most common ways that individuals incur these tax obligations. As real estate investors ourselves, we know first-hand how confusing CGT can seem initially!

What Triggers Capital Gains Tax on Property Sales?

Okay, so capital gains tax applies whenever you dispose of an investment property and make a taxable gain. But what do we mean by “dispose” exactly?

Essentially, there are specific events that the ATO defines as disposal or “CGT events” for tax purposes. Some key triggers that will lead you to owe CGT on a property include:

  • Selling your investment property
  • Gifting the property
  • Transferring it to a trust or beneficiary
  • Converting or changing its use

When any of the above CGT events occur, you usually need to pay this tax on any profits above your original purchase costs. We dive more into calculating exactly how much tax you’ll owe a bit later on.

How Capital Gains Tax is Calculated

Now that you know what creates a taxable capital gain, you’re probably wondering – how do I figure out how much tax I actually need to pay?

This is where things get slightly more technical. The basic formula the ATO uses is:

Capital Gain = Sale Price – Cost Base

Your property’s cost base is what you paid originally to acquire it, plus certain other costs like:

  • Stamp duty on purchase
  • Legal fees
  • Improvement/renovation costs

Let’s consider this example:

Paul buys an investment unit for $350,000 plus $15,000 in buying costs. He later sells it for $430,000.

His capital gain would be:

Sale Price = $430,000

Cost Base = $350,000 + $15,000 = $365,000

Capital Gain = $430,000 – $365,000 = $65,000

So Paul has made a $65K capital gain here before tax that he needs to report to the ATO.

(For simplicity, we’re not factoring in deductible expenses/capital losses – we explain those later!)

Once you’ve calculated the gross capital gain, the ATO will tax you on the applicable portion of this amount based on your circumstances – more on this next.

Key Factors That Influence Capital Gains Tax

When determining how much of your capital gains you’ll actually pay tax on, these are the key factors at play:

  • Ownership Period

Whether you held the property for less or more than 12 months makes a major difference. Gains from assets owned for longer than a year receive a 50% discount, halving your taxable amount. We explain more shortly when we look at CGT discounts.

  • Use of Property

Was the property mainly used by you for personal purposes or as an investment/business? This plays into eligibility for the main residence exemption.

  • Your Income Tax Rate

Your specific income level and tax bracket determines what rate you pay on the taxable portion of your capital gain. Higher earners might have a top marginal rate of 45% for example.

  • Deductible Expenses

You can subtract a range of related expenditures like the aforementioned legal fees, stamp duty, agent commissions and interest paid. Even capital losses on other assets can offset the taxable capital gain.

Okay, let’s expand on some of those key deductions and discounts now..

Capital Gains Tax Discounts and Exemptions

The good news is that Australian tax residents enjoy access to several exemptions and discounts that help minimize CGT owed on investment property sales:

  • Main Residence Exemption

As the name suggests, any capital gain on your main place of residence is entirely tax-free if you meet eligibility criteria around ownership and occupancy periods.

  • 50% CGT Discount

Remember Paul with his $65K taxable capital gain earlier? Well as an Australian resident taxpayer, he can actually apply a 50% discount here, reducing it down to $32,500. This applies to investment properties held longer than 12 months before selling. It halves the tax otherwise owed.

So in Paul’s case, say his income level puts him in a 32.5% average tax bracket. His final CGT bill would be 32.5% of $32,500 which equals $10,562 – much lower than if no discount applied!

Strategies to Reduce Your Capital Gains Tax Bill

Carefully tracking allowable deductions and making the most of discounts above are the main ways to legally minimize any taxes owed on property capital gains.

Here are two other areas where we often advise our clients:

  • Maintain Accurate Records

Having a clear paper trail of all historical purchase costs & expenses makes calculating your tax obligations much smoother. Organization upfront prevents nasty surprises!

  • Claim Deductible Expenses

As discussed earlier as part of determining your cost base, many common expenses like property management fees and capital improvements to the property should be deducted to help offset capital gains. But you need proper documentation to substantiate these.

Capital Gains Tax for Foreign Real Estate Investors

If you are not an Australian tax resident, unfortunately you do not receive access to the generous 50% discount or main residence exemptions outlined earlier.

Foreign owners also need to be aware of the Foreign Resident Capital Gains Withholding Tax (FRCGW) when selling. Essentially, the property purchaser is required to withhold a flat 12.5% of the total sale price and pay this directly to the ATO on the foreign seller’s behalf. So you need to factor this percentage into your expected proceeds.

When Capital Gains Tax is Due

As a general rule, any capital gains tax is due in the income year when your CGT event like a property sale occurs.

When annual income tax returns are due on October 31 for individuals, your total tax obligations across income, capital gains, etc get reconciled and calculated together at this point.

If you have extremely large capital gains, the ATO may expect progress installment payments through the year to prevent all the tax being due at once.

So in summary, you generally pay CGT annually alongside income tax, but consider estimated installments if you foresee a spike in capital gains for a certain year to smooth out payments.

We hope this beginner’s introduction has helped you get informed about capital gains tax when it comes to investing in Australian real estate. As you can see, while the calculations may seem complex at first, once you understand the key concepts, the amount of tax you’ll pay comes down primarily to your ownership period, expenses, and eligibility for discounts.

If you have any other questions arising, please feel free to reach out to the advisory team at Empire 8 Property. With extensive tax knowledge and direct investing experience locally, we are always happy to offer tailored guidance to help new investors kickstart their asset portfolios smoothly while optimizing their tax obligations. Partner with us and let’s kickstart your investing goals today!


Q:What if I make a loss when selling an investment property?

A:You can carry forward capital losses indefinitely to offset future capital gains. This reduces tax owed in those future years.

Q:Do capital gains from property count towards my income?

A:While they are separate, net capital gains above the tax-free threshold do get combined with your regular annual income to determine your overall tax rates and obligations.

Q:I’m an overseas investor – what gets included in my cost base?

A:For foreign owners, only the original purchase price based on the exchange rate at the time can be included in the cost base – improvement costs cannot be claimed.